|Because anatomy is a descriptive science, clearly defined and unambiguous terms must be used to indicate the positions of structures to each other and to the body as a whole in the anatomical position.
Anterior （Ventral, Front） Nearer to the front of the body is anterior. Usually the anterior surface of the hand is called the volar or palmar surface and the inferior surface of the foot is called the plantar surface or sole. Ventral is equivalent to anterior.
Posterior （Dorsal, Behind） Nearer to the back of the body is posterior. Dorsal is interchangeable with posterior. Usually the posterior or dorsal surface of the hand is called dorsum. The term dorsum is also used to describe the anterosuperior surface of the foot.
前（腹侧） 靠近身体的前部，常将手的前面称为掌面或手掌，而脚的下面称为 面或足底。腹侧等同于前方。
|Superior （Cephalic, Cranial, Above） Toward the head or upper part of the body. Cranial and cephalic are interchangeable adjectives which mean proceeding toward the brain and cranium. Rostral is often used synonymously with anterior in descriptions of the brain.
Inferior （Caudal, Below） Toward the feet or lower part of the body and further from the head. The term caudal means nearer to the tail and is used in description of embryos.
Medial Toward the median plane of the body.
Lateral Farther away from the medium plane of the body.
In the upper limb, the radius is the lateral bone of the forearm and the ulna is the medial one. Thus, the term radial is referred to the lateral and the ulnar is referred to the medial.
Intermediate Between two structures, one of which is medial and the other lateral.
|Shortly after leaving the porta hepatis, the right and left hepatic ducts unite to form the common hepatic duct. It passes inferiorly and to tile right, between the layers of the lesser omentum, where it is joined on the right side at an acute angle by the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the large bile duct, common bile duct.
The common bile duct, passes in the free edge of the lesser omentum with the hepatic artery and the portal vein. The common bile duct passes inferiorly, anterior to the epiploic foramen, where it is anterior to the right edge of the portal vein and on the right side of the hepatic artery. The common bile duct passes posterior to the superior part of the duodenum and the head of the pancreas. On the left side of the descending part of the duodenum, the common bile duct comes into contact with the pancreatic duct and the two of them run obliquely through the wall of the duodenum, where they usually unite to form the hepatopancreatic ampulla （Vater's）. There is a sphincter of hepatopancreatic ampulla （sphincter of Oddi）, which normally keeps the ostium of hepatopancreatic ampulla closed.
|The gallbladder lies in a fossa on the ventral surface of the liver. It is located between the right and quadrate lobes of the liver and closed to superior part of the duodenum and the transverse colon anteriorly. The gallbladder is divided into three parts, the fundus, the body and the neck. The neck of the gallbladder makes a S-shaped bend and is somewhat constricted as it becomes continuous with the cystic duct. The cystic duct runs superiorly at first and then turns posteriorly and inferiorly to join the common hepatic duct, forming the bile duct, which empties into the duodenum.||胆囊位于肝腹侧面的窝内，在肝右叶和方叶之间，邻接十二指肠上部和横结肠前方。胆囊分为三部分：即底，体和颈。胆囊颈部呈S状弯曲，在其延续为胆囊管处变得狭窄。胆囊管先行向上方，然后转向后下方与肝总管会合，形成总胆管通向十二指肠。|